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The English Bulldog
The Bulldog is known to have been domiciled in this country for several centuries. Like the Mastiff, of which it is a smaller form, it is a descendant of the "Alaunt," Mastive, or Bandog, described by Dr. Caius, who states that "the Mastyve or Bandogge is vaste, huge, stubborne, ougly and eager, of a hevy, and burthenous body, and therefore but of little swiftnesse, terrible and frightful to beholde, and more fearce and fell than any Arcadian curre."
The first mention of "Bulldog" as the distinctive name of this now national breed occurs in a letter, written by Prestwich Eaton from St. Sebastian to George Wellingham in St. Swithin's Lane, London, in 1631 or 1632, "for a good Mastive dogge, a case of bottles replenished with the best lickour, and pray proceur mee two good bulldoggs, and let them be sent by ye first shipp." Obviously the name was derived from the dog's association with the sport of bull-baiting. The object aimed at in that pursuit was that the dog should pin and hold the bull by the muzzle, and not leave it. The bull was naturally helpless when seized in his most tender part. As he lowered his head in order to use his horns it was necessary for the dog to keep close to the ground, or, in the words of the old fanciers of the sport, to "play low." Larger dogs were at a disadvantage in this respect, and, therefore, those of smaller proportions, which were quite as suitable for the sport, were selected. The average height of the dogs was about 16 inches, and the weight was generally about 45 lbs., whilst the body was broad, muscular, and compact, as is shown in Scott's well-known engraving of "Crib and Rosa.
When bull-baiting was prohibited by law the sportsmen of the period turned their attention to dog-fighting, and for this pastime the Bulldogs were specially trained. The chief centres in London where these exhibitions took place were the Westminster Pit, the Bear Garden at Bankside, and the Old Conduit Fields in Bayswater. In order to obtain greater quickness of movement many of the Bulldogs were crossed with a terrier, although some fanciers relied on the pure breed. It is recorded that Lord Camelford's Bulldog Belcher fought one hundred and four battles without once suffering defeat.
The decline of bull-baiting and dog-fighting after the passing of the Bill prohibiting these sports was responsible for a lack of interest in perpetuating the breed of Bulldogs. Even in 1824 it was said to be degenerating, and gentlemen who had previously been the chief breeders gradually deserted the fancy. At one time it was stated that Wasp, Child, and Billy, who were of the Duke of Hamilton's strain, were the only remaining Bulldogs in existence, and that upon their decease the Bulldog would become extinct--a prophecy which all Bulldog lovers happily find incorrect.
The specimens alive in 1817, as seen in prints of that period, were not so cloddy as those met with at the present day. Still, the outline of Rosa in the engraving of Crib and Rosa, is considered to represent perfection in the shape, make, and size of the ideal type of Bulldog. The only objections which have been taken are that the bitch is deficient in wrinkles about the head and neck, and in substance of bone in the limbs.
The commencement of the dog-show era in 1859 enabled classes to be provided for Bulldogs, and a fresh incentive to breed them was offered to the dog fancier. In certain districts of the country, notably in London, Birmingham, Sheffield, Manchester, and Dudley, a number of fanciers resided, and it is to their efforts that we are indebted for the varied specimens of the breed that are to be seen at the present time.
In forming a judgment of a Bulldog the general appearance is of most importance, as the various points of the dog should be symmetrical and well balanced, no one point being in excess of the others so as to destroy the impression of determination, strength, and activity which is conveyed by the typical specimen. His body should be thickset, rather low in stature, but broad, powerful, and compact. The head should be strikingly massive and large in proportion to the dog's size. It cannot be too large so long as it is square; that is, it must not be wider than it is deep. The larger the head in circumference, caused by the prominent cheeks, the greater the quantity of muscle to hold the jaws together. The head should be of great depth from the occiput to the base of the lower jaw, and should not in any way be wedge-shaped, dome-shaped, or peaked.
In circumference the skull should measure in front of the ears at least the height of the dog at the shoulders. The cheeks should be well rounded, extend sideways beyond the eyes, and be well furnished with muscle. Length of skull--that is, the distance between the eye and the ear--is very desirable. The forehead should be flat, and the skin upon it and about the head very loose, hanging in large wrinkles. The temples, or frontal bones, should be very prominent, broad, square and high, causing a wide and deep groove known as the "stop" between the eyes, and should extend up the middle of the forehead, dividing the head vertically, being traceable at the top of the skull. The expression "well broken up" is used where this stop and furrow are well marked, and if there is the attendant looseness of skin the animal's expression is well finished.
The face, when measured from the front of the cheek-bone to the nose, should be short, and its skin should be deeply and closely wrinkled.
Excessive shortness of face is not natural, and can only be obtained by the sacrifice of the "chop." Such shortness of face makes the dog appear smaller in head and less formidable than he otherwise would be. Formerly this shortness of face was artificially obtained by the use of the "jack," an atrocious form of torture, by which an iron instrument was used to force back the face by means of thumbscrews.
The nose should be rough, large, broad, and black, and this colour should extend to the lower lip; its top should be deeply set back, almost between the eyes. The distance from the inner corner of the eye to the extreme tip of the nose should not be greater than the length from the tip of the nose to the edge of the under lip. The nostrils should be large and wide, with a well-defined straight line visible between them. The largeness of nostril, which is a very desirable property, is possessed by few of the recent prize-winners.
When viewed in profile the tip of the nose should touch an imaginary line drawn from the extremity of the lower jaw to the top of the centre of the skull. This angle of the nose and face is known as the lay-back, and can only properly be ascertained by viewing the dog from the side.
The inclination backward of the nose allows a free passage of the air into the nostrils whilst the dog is holding his quarry. It is apparent that if the mouth did not project beyond the nose, the nostrils would be flat against the part to which the dog was fixed, and breathing would then be stopped.
The upper lip, called the "chop," or flews, should be thick, broad, pendant and very deep, hanging completely over the lower jaw at the sides, but only just joining the under lip in front, yet covering the teeth completely. The amount of "cushion" which a dog may have is dependent upon the thickness of the flews. The lips should not be pendulous.
The upper jaw should be broad, massive, and square, the tusks being wide apart, whilst the lower jaw, being turned upwards, should project in front of the upper. The teeth should be large and strong, and the six small teeth between the tusks should be in an even row. The upper jaw cannot be too broad between the tusks. If the upper and lower jaws are level, and the muzzle is not turned upwards the dog is said to be "down-faced," whilst if the underjaw is not undershot he is said to be "froggy." A "wry-faced" dog is one having the lower jaw twisted, and this deformity so detracts from the general appearance of the dog as seriously to handicap him in the show-ring.
The underjaw projects beyond the upper in order to allow the dog, when running directly to the front, to grasp the bull, and, when fixed, to give him a firmer hold. The eyes, seen from the front, should be situated low down in the skull, as far from the ears, the nose, and each other as possible, but quite in front of the forehead, so long as their corners are in a straight line at right angles with the stop, and in front of the forehead. They should be a little above the level of the base of the nasal bone, and should be quite round in shape, of moderate size, neither sunken nor prominent, and be as black in colour as possible--almost, if not quite, black, showing no white when looking directly to the front.
A good deal of a Bulldog's appearance depends on the quality, shape, and carriage of his ears. They should be small and thin, and set high on the head; that is, the front inner edge of each ear should, as viewed from the front, join the outline of the skull at the top corner of such outline, so as to place them as wide apart, as high, and as far from the eyes as possible. The shape should be that which is known as "rose," in which the ear folds inward at the back, the upper or front edge curving over outwards and backwards, showing part of the inside of the burr. If the ears are placed low on the skull they give an appleheaded appearance to the dog. If the ear falls in front, hiding the interior, as is the case with a Fox-terrier, it is said to "button," and this type is highly objectionable. Unfortunately, within the last few years the "button" and "semi-tulip" ear have been rather prevalent amongst the specimens on the show bench.
If the ear is carried erect it is known as a "tulip" ear, and this form also is objectionable. Nevertheless at the beginning of the nineteenth century two out of every three dogs possessed ears of this description.
The neck should be moderate in length, very thick, deep, muscular, and short, but of sufficient length to allow it to be well arched at the back, commencing at the junction with the skull. There should be plenty of loose, thick, and wrinkled skin about the throat, forming a dewlap on each side from the lower jaw to the chest.
The chest should be very wide laterally, round, prominent, and deep, making the dog appear very broad and short-legged in front. The shoulders should be broad, the blades sloping considerably from the body; they should be deep, very powerful, and muscular, and should be flat at the top and play loosely from the chest.
The brisket should be capacious, round, and very deep from the shoulder to the lowest part, where it joins the chest, and be well let down between the fore-legs. It should be large in diameter, and round behind the fore-legs, neither flat-sided nor sinking, which it will not do provided that the first and succeeding ribs are well rounded. The belly should be well tucked up and not pendulous, a small narrow waist being greatly admired. The desired object in body formation is to obtain great girth at the brisket, and the smallest possible around the waist, that is, the loins should be arched very high, when the dog is said to have a good "cut-up."
The back should be short and strong, very broad at the shoulder and comparatively narrow at the loins. The back should rise behind the shoulders in a graceful curve to the loins, the top of which should be higher than the top of the shoulders, thence curving again more suddenly to the tail, forming an arch known as the "roach" back, which is essentially a characteristic of the breed, though, unfortunately, many leading prize-winners of the present day are entirely deficient in this respect. Some dogs dip very considerably some distance behind the shoulders before the upward curve of the spine begins, and these are known as "swamp-backed"; others rise in an almost straight line to the root of the tail, and are known as "stern-high."
The tail should be set on low, jut out rather straight, then turn downwards, the end pointing horizontally. It should be quite round in its whole length, smooth and devoid of fringe or coarse hair. It should be moderate in length, rather short than long, thick at the root, and taper quickly to a fine point. It should have a downward carriage, and the dog should not be able to raise it above the level of the backbone. The tail should not curve at the end, otherwise it is known as "ring-tailed." The ideal length of tail is about six inches.
Many fanciers demand a "screw" or "kinked" tail, that is, one having congenital dislocations at the joints, but such appendages are not desirable in the best interests of the breed.
The fore-legs should be very stout and strong, set wide apart, thick, muscular, and short, with well-developed muscles in the calves, presenting a rather bowed outline, but the bones of the legs must be straight, large, and not bandy or curved. They should be rather short in proportion to the hind-legs, but not so short as to make the back appear long or detract from the dog's activity and so cripple him.
The elbows should be low and stand well away from the ribs, so as to permit the body to swing between them. If this property be absent the dog is said to be "on the leg." The ankles or pasterns should be short, straight, and strong. The fore-feet should be straight and turn very slightly outwards; they should be of medium size and moderately round, not too long or narrow, whilst the toes should be thick, compact, and well split up, making the knuckles prominent and high.
The hind-legs, though of slighter build than the fore-legs, should be strong and muscular. They should be longer, in proportion, than the fore-legs in order to elevate the loins. The stifles should be round and turned slightly outwards, away from the body, thus bending the hocks inward and the hind-feet outward. The hocks should be well let down, so that the leg is long and muscular from the loins to the point of the hock, which makes the pasterns short, but these should not be so short as those of the fore-legs. The hind-feet, whilst being smaller than the forefeet, should be round and compact, with the toes well split up, and the knuckles prominent.
The most desirable weight for a Bulldog is about 50 lbs.
The coat should be fine in texture, short, close, and smooth, silky when stroked from the head towards the tail owing to its closeness, but not wiry when stroked in the reverse direction.
The colour should be whole or smut, the latter being a whole colour with a black mask or muzzle. It should be brilliant and pure of its sort. The colours in order of merit are, first, whole colours and smuts, viz., brindles, reds, white, with their varieties, as whole fawns, fallows, etc., and, secondly, pied and mixed colours. Opinions differ considerably on the colour question; one judge will set back a fawn and put forward a pied dog, whilst others will do the reverse.
Occasionally one comes across specimens having a black-and-tan colour, which, although not mentioned in the recognised standard as being debarred, do not as a rule figure in the prize list. Some of the best specimens which the writer has seen have been black-and-tans, and a few years ago on the award of a first prize to a bitch of this colour, a long but non-conclusive argument was held in the canine press. Granted that the colour is objectionable, a dog which scores in all other properties should not be put down for this point alone, seeing that in the dog-fighting days there were many specimens of this colour.
In action the Bulldog should have a peculiarly heavy and constrained gait, a rolling, or "slouching" movement, appearing to walk with short, quick steps on the tip of his toes, his hind-feet not being lifted high but appearing to skim the ground, and running with the right shoulder rather advanced, similar to the manner of a horse when cantering.
The foregoing minute description of the various show points of a Bulldog indicates that he should have the appearance of a thick-set Ayrshire or Highland bull. In stature he should be low to the ground, broad and compact, the body being carried between and not on the fore-legs. He should stand over a great deal of ground, and have the appearance of immense power. The height of the fore-leg should not exceed the distance from the elbow to the centre of the back, between the shoulder blades.
Considerable importance is attached to the freedom and activity displayed by the animal in its movements. Deformed joints, or weakness, are very objectionable. The head should be strikingly massive and carried low, the face short, the muzzle very broad, blunt, and inclined upwards. The body should be short and well-knit, the limbs, stout and muscular. The hind-quarters should be very high and strong, but rather lightly made in comparison with the heavily-made fore-parts.
It must be acknowledged that there are many strains of this breed which are constitutionally unsound. For this reason it is important that the novice should give very careful consideration to his first purchase of a Bulldog. He should ascertain beyond all doubt, not only that his proposed purchase is itself sound in wind and limb, but that its sire and dam are, and have been, in similarly healthy condition.
The dog to be chosen should be physically strong and show pronounced muscular development. If these requirements are present and the dog is in no sense a contradiction of the good qualities of its progenitors, but a justification of its pedigree, care and good treatment will do the rest. It is to be remembered, however, that a Bulldog may be improved by judicious exercise. When at exercise, or taking a walk with his owner, the young dog should always be held by a leash. He will invariably pull vigorously against this restraint, but such action is beneficial, as it tends to develop the muscles of the shoulders and front of the body.
When taking up the Bulldog fancy, nine out of every ten novices choose to purchase a male. The contrary course should be adopted. The female is an equally good companion in the house or on the road; she is not less affectionate and faithful; and when the inevitable desire to attempt to reproduce the species is reached the beginner has the means at once available.
It is always difficult for the uninitiated to select what is likely to be a good dog from the nest. In choosing a puppy care should be taken to ensure it has plenty of bone in its limbs, and these should be fairly short and wide; the nostrils should be large and the face as short as possible. The chop should be thick and heavily wrinkled and the mouth square. There should be a distinct indent in the upper jaw, where the bone will eventually curve, whilst the lower jaw should show signs of curvature and protrude slightly in front of the upper jaw. The teeth from canine to canine, including the six front teeth, should be in a straight line.
See that the ears are very small and thin, and the eyes set well apart. The puppy having these properties, together with a domed, peaked, or "cocoanut" shaped skull, is the one which, in nine cases out of ten, will eventually make the best headed dog of the litter.
The breeding of Bulldogs requires unlimited patience, as success is very difficult to attain. The breeder who can rear five out of every ten puppies born may be considered fortunate. It is frequently found in what appears to be a healthy lot of puppies that some of them begin to whine and whimper towards the end of the first day, and in such cases the writer's experience is that there will be a speedy burial.
It may be that the cause is due to some acidity of the milk, but in such a case one would expect that similar difficulty would be experienced with the remainder of the litter, but this is not the usual result. Provided that the puppies can be kept alive until the fourth day, it may be taken that the chances are well in favour of ultimate success.
Many breeders object to feeding the mother with meat at this time, but the writer once had two litter sisters who whelped on the same day, and he decided to try the effect of a meat _versus_ farinaceous diet upon them. As a result the bitch who was freely fed with raw beef reared a stronger lot of puppies, showing better developed bone, than did the one who was fed on milk and cereals.
Similarly, in order that the puppy, after weaning, may develop plenty of bone and muscle, it is advisable to feed once a day upon finely minced raw meat. There are some successful breeders, indeed, who invariably give to each puppy a teaspoonful of cod liver oil in the morning and a similar dose of extract of malt in the evening, with the result that there are never any rickety or weak dogs in the kennels, whilst the development of the bones in the skull and limbs is most pronounced.
Owing to their lethargic disposition, young Bulldogs are somewhat liable to indigestion, and during the period of puppyhood it is of advantage to give them a tablespoonful of lime water once a day in their milk food.
Many novices are in doubt as to the best time to breed from a Bull bitch, seeing that oestrum is present before she is fully developed. It may be taken as practically certain that it is better for her to be allowed to breed at her first heat. Nature has so arranged matters that a Bull bitch is not firmly set in her bones until she reaches an age of from twelve to eighteen months, and therefore she will have less difficulty in giving birth to her offspring if she be allowed to breed at this time. Great mortality occurs in attempting to breed from maiden bitches exceeding three years of age, as the writer knows to his cost.
It is desirable, in the case of a young bitch having her first litter, for her master or mistress to be near her at the time, in order to render any necessary assistance; but such attentions should not be given unless actual necessity arises.
Some bitches with excessive lay-back and shortness of face have at times a difficulty in releasing the puppy from the membrane in which it is born, and in such a case it is necessary for the owner to open this covering and release the puppy, gently shaking it about in the box until it coughs and begins to breathe.
The umbilical cord should be severed from the afterbirth about four inches from the puppy, and this will dry up and fall away in the course of a couple of days.
In general, it is true economy for the Bulldog breeder to provide a foster-mother in readiness for the birth of the expected litter; especially is this so in the case of a first litter, when the qualifications for nursing by the mother are unknown. Where there are more than five puppies it is also desirable to obtain a foster-mother in order that full nourishment may be given to the litter by both mothers.
The best time of the year for puppies to be born is in the spring, when, owing to the approaching warm weather, they can lead an outdoor life. By the time they are six months old they should have sufficient stamina to enable them to withstand the cold of the succeeding winter. It has been ascertained that Bulldogs which have been reared out of doors are the least liable to suffer from indigestion, torpidity of the liver, asthma or other chest ailments, whilst they invariably have the hardiest constitution.
Bulldogs generally require liberal feeding, and should have a meal of dry biscuit the first thing in the morning, whilst the evening meal should consist of a good stew of butcher's offal poured over broken biscuit, bread, or other cereal food. In the winter time it is advantageous to soak a tablespoonful of linseed in water overnight, and after the pods have opened to turn the resulting jelly into the stew pot. This ensures a fine glossy coat, and is of value in toning up the intestines. Care must, however, be taken not to follow this practice to excess in warm weather, as the heating nature of the linseed will eventually cause skin trouble.
With these special points attended to, the novice should find no difficulty in successfully becoming a Bulldog fancier, owner, and breeder.
In conclusion, it cannot be too widely known that the Bulldog is one of the very few breeds which can, with perfect safety, be trusted alone to the mercy of children, who, naturally, in the course of play, try the patience and good temper of the firmest friend of man.